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The islandregulations and ethical principles that prohibit us from taking partisan political considerations into account when deciding what to do in individual cases. How can someone stop us from organising protest?

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We did not resort to violence first. Lisa went to school at Thornhillclick Show Desktop Icons to select it. In general, these philosophers argue that truth was not about getting it right or representing reality, but was part of subjective social relations of power , or language-games that served our purposes in a particular time. Therefore, these forms of anti-foundationalism , while not being pessimistic per se, rejects any definitions that claims to have discovered absolute 'truths' or foundational facts about the world as valid.

Philosophical pessimism stands opposed to the optimism or even utopianism of Hegelian philosophies. Emil Cioran claimed "Hegel is chiefly responsible for modern optimism. How could he have failed to see that consciousness changes only its forms and modalities, but never progresses? As Cioran states, "every step forward is followed by a step back: this is the unfruitful oscillation of history". This does not mean however, that the pessimist cannot be politically involved, as Camus argued in The Rebel.


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There is another strain of thought generally associated with a pessimistic worldview, this is the pessimism of cultural criticism and social decline which is seen in Oswald Spengler 's ' The Decline of the West '. Spengler promoted a cyclic model of history similar to the theories of Giambattista Vico. Spengler believed modern western civilization was in the 'winter' age of decline untergang.

Spenglerian theory was immensely influential in interwar Europe, especially in Weimar Germany. Similarly, traditionalist Julius Evola thought that the world was in the Kali Yuga , a dark age of moral decline. Intellectuals like Oliver James correlate economic progress with economic inequality , the stimulation of artificial needs, and affluenza. Anti-consumerists identify rising trends of conspicuous consumption and self-interested, image-conscious behavior in culture.

Post-modernists like Jean Baudrillard have even argued that culture and therefore our lives now has no basis in reality whatsoever. Conservative thinkers, especially social conservatives , often perceive politics in a generally pessimistic way. William F. Buckley famously remarked that he was "standing athwart history yelling 'stop! Many economic conservatives and libertarians believe that the expansion of the state and the role of government in society is inevitable, and they are at best fighting a holding action against it.

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During the financial crisis of —08 in the United States, the neologism " pessimism porn " was coined to describe the alleged eschatological and survivalist thrill some people derive from predicting, reading and fantasizing about the collapse of civil society through the destruction of the world's economic system. Technological pessimism is the belief that advances in science and technology do not lead to an improvement in the human condition. Technological pessimism can be said to have originated during the industrial revolution with the Luddite movement.

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Luddites blamed the rise of industrial mills and advanced factory machinery for the loss of their jobs and set out to destroy them. The Romantic movement was also pessimistic towards the rise of technology and longed for simpler and more natural times. Poets like William Wordsworth and William Blake believed that industrialization was polluting the purity of nature.

Some social critics and environmentalists believe that globalization , overpopulation and the economic practices of modern capitalist states over-stress the planet's ecological equilibrium. They warn that unless something is done to slow this, climate change will worsen eventually leading to some form of social and ecological collapse. The presence of 7 billion people aiming for first-world comforts…is clearly incompatible with the homeostasis of climate but also with chemistry, biological diversity and the economy of the system.

Some radical environmentalists , anti-globalization activists, and Neo-luddites can be said to hold to this type of pessimism about the effects of modern "progress". A more radical form of environmental pessimism is anarcho-primitivism which faults the agricultural revolution with giving rise to social stratification, coercion, and alienation.

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Some anarcho-primitivists promote deindustrialization , abandonment of modern technology and rewilding. An infamous anarcho-primitivist is Theodore Kaczynski , also known as the Unabomber who engaged in a nationwide mail bombing campaign. In his manifesto, Industrial Society and Its Future he called attention to the erosion of human freedom by the rise of the modern "industrial-technological system".

The Industrial Revolution and its consequences have been a disaster for the human race. The continued development of technology will worsen the situation. One of the most radical pessimist organizations is the voluntary human extinction movement which argues for the extinction of the human race through antinatalism. Pope Francis ' controversial encyclical on ecological issues is ripe with pessimistic assessments of the role of technology in the modern world. According to the second law of thermodynamics — also known as the entropy law — what happens in the economy is that all matter and energy is transformed from states available for human purposes valuable natural resources to states unavailable for human purposes valueless waste and pollution.

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In effect, all of man's technologies and activities are only speeding up the general march against a future planetary 'heat death' of degraded energy, exhausted natural resources and a deteriorated environment — a state of maximum entropy locally on earth; 'locally' on earth, that is, when compared to the heat death of the universe , taken as a whole. The term 'entropy pessimism' was coined to describe the work of Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and the paradigm founder of ecological economics. Among other matters, the entropy pessimism position is concerned with the existential impossibility of allocating earth's finite stock of mineral resources evenly among an unknown number of present and future generations.

This number of generations is likely to remain unknown to us, as there is no way — or only little way — of knowing in advance if or when mankind will ultimately face extinction. In effect, any conceivable intertemporal allocation of the stock will inevitably end up with universal economic decline at some future point.

Entropy pessimism is a widespread view in ecological economics and in the degrowth movement. Bibas writes that some criminal defense attorneys prefer to err on the side of pessimism: "Optimistic forecasts risk being proven disastrously wrong at trial, an embarrassing result that makes clients angry. On the other hand, if clients plead based on their lawyers' overly pessimistic advice, the cases do not go to trial and the clients are none the wiser.

In the ancient world, psychological pessimism was associated with melancholy , and was believed to be caused by an excess of black bile in the body. The study of pessimism has parallels with the study of depression.

Psychologists trace pessimistic attitudes to emotional pain or even biology. Aaron Beck argues that depression is due to unrealistic negative views about the world. Beck starts treatment by engaging in conversation with clients about their unhelpful thoughts. Pessimists, however, are often able to provide arguments that suggest that their understanding of reality is justified; as in Depressive realism or pessimistic realism. They let people assume they are revealing everything which proves to be an effective way of hiding.

Wender and Klein point out that pessimism can be useful in some circumstances: "If one is subject to a series of defeats, it pays to adopt a conservative game plan of sitting back and waiting and letting others take the risks. Such waiting would be fostered by a pessimistic outlook. Similarly if one is raking in the chips of life, it pays to adopt an expansive risk taking approach, and thus maximize access to scarce resources.